In 1988, former editor-in-chief of Marvel Comics Jim Shooter, Steven J. Massarsky, and a group of investors attempted to purchase Marvel Entertainment. They submitted the second highest bid, with financier Ronald Perelman submitting the highest bid and acquiring Marvel. Shooter and Massarsky instead formed Voyager Communications in 1989 with significant venture capital financing from Triumph Capital. Valiant recruited numerous writers and artists from Marvel, including Barry Windsor-Smith, creator of Wolverine‘s “Weapon X” storyline, and Bob Layton, a long-time writer of Iron Man. Valiant launched an interconnected line of superhero comics featuring a mixture of characters licensed from Western Publishing and original creations.